According to Harari, the state and the market replaced the family and the local community as the central aspects of human culture. This is a result of many different factors. An example of such a factor that led to the collapse of family and local community was the ever increasing involvement by state to solve family vendettas once taken care of within the family. Another factor is the idea of becoming individuals. “’Become individuals,’ they said. ‘Marry whomever you desire, without asking permission from parents. Take up whatever job suits you, even if community elders frown. Live wherever you wish, even if you cannot make it every week to the family dinner. You are no longer dependent on your family or community. We, the state and the market, will take care of you instead. We will provide food, shelter, education, health, welfare, and employment. We will provide pensions, insurance, and protection”(Harari , 359). So what once was a community or a family, solving problems on their own, relying on each other within the community or family for safety, health or education, has become a bunch of individuals relying on state and market instead.
When considering the future or end of homo sapiens, I think the role that historians will have is an important one. Engineers and scientists can try to solve current issues or prevent something from occurring, but historians will be the ones that can relate the current to the past. Historians are able to see a more broad picture. They focus on more than just the specific task at hand that the engineer or scientist will be focusing on, and I think a broad outlook, presenting possibilities and weighing consequences will be a very important role that historians will play and are playing as humankind progresses through time.