One argument Charles Darwin made for evolution through natural selection was how geology has changed over the many years of the earth’s existence, and this is evidence of plants and animals needed to adapt. Darwin (1859) stated, “If we look to long enough intervals of time, geology declares that all species have changed…they have changed slowly and in a graduated manner” (488). Darwin discusses the use of fossils to show how the land has changed and the animals needed to adapt to different ecosystems. Darwin also uses the argument that people have used evolution to create domestic breeds of animals (Ibid, 489). An example of this is the many dog breeds that have survived due to natural selection and the cross-breeding methods used by humans. Darwin also uses competition between and with other species as an argument for evolution. He uses the example of how the queen bee lives in competition with the other bees. It uses skills of survival to kill other fertile female bees, and natural selection has made it, so the other bees die after they sting once (Ibid, 493). Another example of this is the ability of bats to use echolocation to find food.
I find Darwin’s arguments about competition and response to external factors (human breeding) to be his two strongest points for evolution through natural selection. We can see many animals that have evolved in the wild to find prey for food. It is also evident that evolution has happened by the many dog breeds created by people. For example, the Yorkie breed was created to catch mice in Industrial Era textile mills in England, not found in the wild. I find his argument regarding geology to be a little less convincing. When the environment changed, species may have died or migrated. For example, some of the marine fossils found in Montana are from when there was a shallow sea over the state.