According to Harari, the state and the market became the central aspects of human culture by curating the individual. “The state and the market are the mother and father of the individual, and the individual can only survive thanks to them” (Harari 359). By giving people the ability to support themselves financially and in terms of health without relying on their family, the state and market made it possible for people to live without a community. Although individuals no longer rely on their families and the community around them, they now rely on banks, governments, and insurance to support them which is what makes the state and the market the central aspects of human culture. The individual would not be able to survive alone if they couldn’t do things like take out loans or rely on nurses for health assistance.
When considering the future, or the end, of homo sapiens, history plays a very important role. Because history is the study of everything, we use it to observe how everything changes and how those changes affect how everything else changes as well. It’s important to look at how our rapidly changing history has removed us from biological forces like natural selection and how our removal from these forces has affected our development and the world around us. Not to be all “history repeats itself” or “we need to learn from our mistakes”, but it is important to see how our evolution as homo sapiens has altered our entire reality and the way we interact with both one another and the world around us. By doing so we could help to figure out what has worked and what hasn’t and how new technologies like genetic engineering and biotic life could remove us further from our cultural roots, and what this will mean for our future as a species.