Harari (2015) discussed how the Industrial Revolution socially constructed the notion of time. Before the Industrial Revolution and the significance of markets, time did not have much meaning. Even different cities in England were set at different times. The need to set trains on the same timetable to get workers home and to work on the trains led to Greenwich Observatory being set as the standard time (p. 354). Harari (2015) also pointed out that the Industrial Revolution changed culture by “urbanization, the disappearance of the peasantry, the rise of the industrial proletariat, the empowerment of the common person, democratization, youth culture and the disintegration of patriarchy” (p. 335). Harari mentions that culture was also changed by the collapse of the family and the community by urbanization, imagined communities created by the supply and demand of market economies, political and social movements that resulted in revolutions and new governments, more peace-time than in the past, retirement of imperial interests, and more cold wars as opposed to military conflicts. The state and its economic interests have led to these changes in culture. It is no longer about an interest in controlling more people and land; it’s about who has the most money.
At the beginning of Chapter 18, Harari discussed how Homo sapiens significantly impacted global climate change. It is interesting to note that Harari wrote, “Many call this process ‘the destruction of nature.’ However, it is not destruction; it is changing” (p. 351). Historians along with scientists can help educate the public on these changes. Work such as Dr. Cathy Whitlock’s investigation of climate change in Montana could be benefited by historians. As Dr. Whitlock and other scientists travel the state discussing the problems associated with climate change with Montanans, historians can help tell the story of how we are changing the earth. Homo sapiens will be benefited by this type of multi-disciplinary work.