According to Harari the organizations of empires as the standard for political rule fueled the exploration of science and the development of capitalism as the driving force behind world trade. As our empires seek to become more powerful or to defend themselves we fund research in scientific fields such as aerospace engineering and microorganism research that push our militaries and societies further forward. In modern times the capitalistic society we live in also furthers research and empire by funding research and development and paying higher taxes (at least in theory) to the government as their profits increase, and the cycle goes on and on. The system as a whole between science, empire, and capitalism has changed over the last few hundred years as companies also started to invest in scientific research and the promotion of social programs.
Harari argues that the progress of human society is heavily linked between empire, science, and capitalism and this is a rather strong argument as most of our large leaps as a society started occurring in rapid succession the more advanced science and the other elements became. For instance, Louis Pasteur who invented the method of pasteurization still used today frequently worked in the industry to help promote the economy while protecting the consumer. This type of occurrence isn’t standalone either where a structured and ruling government exists it tends to promote its power through its economy and the safety of people and this trend has only been increasing since the 1500’s. Though these systems are interlinked that doesn’t mean our progress is perfect and straightforward there have been setbacks throughout history such as Margaret Thatcher infamously decimating some of England’s larger manual labour industries and the Soviet Union having citizens starve. These occurrences, however, are more from the fact that humans are flawed no matter how perfect the science.