Harari seems to be arguing that the rise in population and industry due to things like the agricultural and industrial revolution as the things that brought about the rise of the market and the state. As people and industry grew the need for larger cities and groupings of people came about. We had outgrown the villages and small towns. Harari states, “Markets and states today provide most of the materials once provided by communities, but they also must supply tribal bonds.” (Harari, 362) So if they provide the sense and feeling of community, how do they supply the tribal bonds? As I understand it the markets have provided us with many things in which to create our own personal tribes. Fans of sports teams, lovers of a particular artist, and connoisseurs of certain cuisines are tribes in their own right. These tribal bonds have been created by the market and the state and have allowed them to have a certain level of control over people since around the mid 19th century.
I think historians have a very major role to play. As Harari states, “it is now beginning to break the laws of natural selection, replacing it with the laws of intelligent design.” (Harari, 397) This is in reference to the newfound ability to change and edit the genome along with the many other scientific discoveries we have made in the same vein as that. This kind of power requires a great responsibility and I think that responsibility will fall on the laps of historians. We need to understand how society will react and handle the changes that this sort of technology brings. We need to understand how people have reacted to wide sweeping advancements throughout history and watch out for our future selves by looking into our past. We can’t just implement things like this without looking at the social consequences and issues that may arise from it. That is the role historians will have to play.