Science, empire and capitalism are all linked in a number of ways. But the two biggest connections are growth and wealth. Growth is required to maintain anything. For example, when the European empire formed they were very interested in acquiring new land. They needed this land in order to maintain their empire. The same could be said for science and capitalism. Science would not be science without advances. You could think of advances in science as the same as acquiring new land. Capitalistic gains are the same way. Harari uses the example of a pie. Without growth, everyone would be try to be taking a piece of the same pie and eventually it would run out. But with growth, new pies are created so everyone can have a piece. Another link is a direct link between scientific advances and economic changes. For example, when aluminum was first discovered, it was more expensive than gold. But advances in science led to a more inexpensive way to create aluminum, and now we produce tons of it.
I strongly agree with Harari’s argument. Not only does progress play a very important role science, empire and capitalism but it plays a role in almost everything in today’s world. Without progress is science we would still be draining blood from ourselves to cure diseases or commuting everywhere by horse and carriage. You could make the argument that without progress in empires, we would still be living in a border free world with no rules. It laid the foundation for how we run our societies today. And without advances in capitalism, the all goods are services we are used to today would pretty much be non-existent. Progress is what gives us hope for the future.