Similar to science and all facets of society, science, empire and capitalism, are strongly interconnected and in a constant relationship of growing, waning, and changing due to the influence of each other. Through the seemingly instinctual human attraction to a constant state of progress and competition, both empire and capitalism, two completely humanly fabricated social facts, fuel advancement and discovery in science. Conversely, innovation and development achieved through science creates a need for more or new forms of power to be implemented through either empire (government) or capitalism to maintain control of these three power houses and to supposedly ensure ongoing progress for the populace to benefit from. For example, scientific (astronomic) discovery regarding the true structure of the universe literally not revolving around the earth challenged concepts of spirituality and religion, which was a positive for the growing empire and rulers desire to rule without input from the church both for the sake of power and for the benefit of receiving taxes directly from their populace. This drive therefore began the intense funding and public support and upmost trust in science and scientists.
Stemming from Harari’s argument, I do agree that progress is the driving factor between the social, political and economic structures that have formed within modern humans. Attraction to and almost dependency on progress and competition definitely seem to be instinctual human traits. Possibly due to the fear of what comes with stagnancy, whether it be failure of relied upon social systems, threats from other countries or lack of luxury in life, people as a whole are constantly focused on progress and bettering one’s own condition. Due to this, the power houses of modern humans, science, empire, and capitalism have created a type of interconnected monopoly on progress and the support of the populace as trusted institutions to ensure said progress for everyone.