Darwin explains the idea of there being multiple varieties of species and how each variety weeded out each other variety. For example like Harari’s point in the war between the sapiens and the neanderthals and how the sapiens being smarter gave them the advantage. Another characteristic Darwin points out is the geological boundaries and that although they can be identical, the life forms will not be the same because they have been separated from each other and now have a different way of living. Darwin on page 491 also explains how it is possible for species to change under the climate and having to be able to adapt to stuff like colder weather, dry climates, small precipitation, etc. Some of those species do better in different climate than others. Sometimes similar species are able to live in different places. Take the Montana antelope with the Africa antelope. They are in two different climates, but are able to exist due to the adaptions they have made overtime through natural selection and evolution.
In this reading, Darwin discusses many different theories of how evolution can be explained through natural selection. The one that stands out to me the most is when he points out that the variety of species on page 492 and since the beginning of life, there has been a variety of species that have been weeded out the “lesser” species. The best example I can give is the parallelism with Sapiens and Neanderthals. Neanderthals had the edge on sapiens physically because they were able to contain more muscle mass, so they were able to win in a hand to hand combat. But eventually the sapiens won because they had more brain power and were able to come up with ways to make all sapiens come together to survive. So naturally the sapiens won.