Science, empire, and capitalism are connected. These three things are a circle. Empire wants to expand. In order to do that, the empire needs money to field a science expedition. After getting money, the science expedition can go explore an area and learn new things. When the expedition comes back with the new information, the empire could then send colonists or an army or both to a new area. Scientific discovery has and will continue to allow capitalism and empires to grow, and science itself being affected by empires and capitalism. An example of a scientific discovery shaping and being shaped by economy and politics is nuclear physics after humans found the way to split the atom. The US funds money into the study of nuclear physics which then helps provide cheaper electricity for American industries, which pays taxes to the US government, which funds more money into nuclear physics (Harari, p. 249).
I agree with Harari that progress is essential for linking science, empire, and capitalism. When he compared Asia with Europe and why Europe was more of a powerhouse after the 1500s, Asia was not as willing to explore or question nature as Europe was (Harari, p. 282). By questioning traditional doctrine and current thoughts, Europeans sought out science and holding scientific expeditions. By finding new lands, new medicine, and new knowledge, the European empires grew. With that growth and using the new knowledge from science, people took that knowledge and made it profitable. With more profit and revenue, the empires can fund more scientific expeditions. Essentially, humans fulfill the idiom, “Curiosity killed the cat, but satisfaction brought it back.” It is up to humans to determine if it will be the death of humanity or a beginning of a new era.