In his book, Harari claims that Science, empire, and capitalism are linked because of how one can support the advancement of another. Science effects capitalism by making tasks easier or fast, both key ways to make it more profitable, and capitalism helps encourage empires to expand their reach by giving them the resources to do so, and the desire to support capitalism by finding more resources, and scientific inquiry by giving it a structure under which to function. One example that Harari mentioned, but that anyone would be familiar with if Christopher Columbus’s expedition to the Americas. It was motivated by capitalism on the part of the Spanish empire which funded it, as they wanted a better spice route, and spices were highly profitable, but on the part of Columbus, the motivation was to prove this new amazing fast route he believed to exist to India. Columbus would not have been able to do his expedition without the Spanish empire agreeing to fund it, which they wouldn’t have done if they didn’t believe it could have been a potentially highly profitable endeavor.
I agree with Harari’s idea that the desire for progress is required for the linkage of the science, capitalism, and empire. While some may still be drawn to science without the pressure of empire or capitalism, they do still have a question they want answered, and any work towards that would be considered a form of progress. Scientific inquiry as we know it today wouldn’t be the same without capitalism and empire serving to pressure and fund it, but neither would they be the same if it wasn’t for science changing the society at a rapidly increasing rate.