Harari argues that the state and market became central aspects of human culture when reliance on the family and the community was replaced by trust on governing bodies. Historically, Harari says that humans had a strong sense of family and community and decisions were made for and within a tight knit group, which generally benefitted the group itself not necessarily the individuals within the group. There came a tipping point where governments stepped in and offered peaceful times and independence in exchange for loyalty in the form of taxes and trust in the government. This was the point where the market became the central aspect of human culture rather than family/community because welfare, retirement, etc. was no longer needed from families but instead came from the government.

Historians’ role in the future of Sapiens would mainly be figuring out a way to accurately assess why and how things happened, and their meanings in a similar way that Harari does in Sapiens. I think historians tell stories of the past, but don’t necessarily articulate their implications for the future in the way that Harari does. Not only telling stories but also analyzing them and putting meaning behind them will allow Sapiens to make “better” choices for our future (or end).

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